In June 2017, Bill C-16 passed its third reading. and received royal assent on June 19, 2017; it immediately went into effect. Bill C-16 amended the Canadian Human Rights Act to include “gender identity or expression” as protected grounds (Part 1, section 3(1)).
While the Canadian Human Rights Act applies throughout Canada, it only applies to federally regulated activities. Federally regulated activities include “federal departments, Crown corporations and agencies, First Nations governments, and private corporations that are regulated by the federal government such as banks, airlines, trucking companies, broadcasters and telecommunications companies.” Where an activity is not federally regulated, individuals must then turn to the respective human rights act or code in their province or territory to determine whether gender identity or gender expression are protected grounds.